Background: We aimed to determine the effects of systemic therapy with autologous adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on different parameters of peritoneal function and inflammation in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
Methods: We enrolled nine PD patients with ultrafiltration failure (UFF). Patients received 1.2±0.1×106 cell/kg of AD-MSCs via cubital vein and were then followed for six months at time points of baseline, 3, 6, 12, 16 and 24 weeks after infusion. UNI-PET was performed for assessment of peritoneal characteristics at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. Systemic and peritoneal levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-2 and CA125 (by ELISA) and gene expression levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), smooth muscle actin (𝛼-SMA) and fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) in PD effluent derived cells (by quantitative real-time PCR) were measured at baseline and weeks 3, 6, 12, 16 and 24.
Results: Slight improvement was observed in the following UF capacity indices: free water transport (FWT, 32%), ultrafiltration - small pore (UFSP, 18%), ultrafiltration total (UFT, 25%), osmotic conductance to glucose (OCG, 25%), D/P creatinine (0.75 to 0.70), and Dt/D0 glucose (0.23 to 0.26). There was a slight increase in systemic and peritoneal levels of CA125 and a slight decrease in gene expression levels of TGF-β, α-SMA and FSP-1 that was more prominent at week 12 and vanished by the end of the study.
Conclusion: Our results for the first time showed the potential of MSCs for treatment of peritoneal damage in a clinical trial. Our results could be regarded as hypothesis suggestion and will need confirmation in future studies.