Background: The Health Belief Model (HBM) as a conceptual framework in health behavior research was applied to improve self-management. This study aimed to determine the effect of theory-based intervention program among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Methods: This quazi-experimental study was conducted on 110 women 17–41 years old which were divided randomly into intervention (n = 55) and control (n = 55) groups. The intervention group received a self-management education for four sessions lasting 35–40 minutes accompanied with a phone call as a booster. Both intervention and control groups attended a routine GDM education program at outpatient health centers. A multi-section instrument included demographics, 28 items in HBM (CVI and CVR were 0.83, 0.87, respectively) and self-management sections. All participants were invited to complete the questionnaire at baseline and at three and six months after intervention. SPSS version 21 was performed for data analysis using repeated measure ANOVA and paired t-test. P less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: At baseline, demographics and HBM constructs revealed no significant differences between two groups (P>0.05). After intervention, perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, benefits and self-efficacy revealed significant differences in the intervention group compared with controls (P<0.001). Self-management and HbA1c indicated significant differences in the intervention group before and after three and six months (P<0.001) whereas in the control group no significant differences were revealed (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Implementing the HBM educational intervention program with focus on benefits of self-management has positive impact on pregnant women.