Background: Associations between hookah and opium use and an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) have been suggested in a few studies, but more research is needed on the nature of these associations. We aimed to investigate the association between hookah and opium use and the prevalence of IHD in a population with relatively high prevalence of these exposures in Iran.
Methods: Using baseline data from the Pars Cohort Study (PCS), a prospective study of individuals aged 40-75 years in Fars province, southern Iran, we calculated adjusted and crude odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the independent association of hookah and opium use with prevalence of IHD.
Results: Of 9248 participants, 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9) had self-reported IHD. Prevalence of ever use of hookah and opium was 48.9% (95% CI: 44.6, 53.6) and 10.2% (95% CI: 8.3, 12.5) among those with IHD, and 37.0% (95% CI: 35.7, 38.3) and 8.1% (95% CI: 7.5, 8.7) among those without IHD, respectively. Adjusted OR for the association with prevalence of IHD was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.46) for hookah use and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.24) for opium abuse. No dose-response association was found between hookah and prevalence of IHD.
Conclusion: Hookah and opium abuse were associated with prevalent IHD in this study. Although more research is needed on these associations, particularly in prospective settings, reducing hookah and opium use could potentially reduce IHD risk.