Arch Iran Med. 2022;25(5): 285-393.
doi: 10.34172/aim.2022.47

Scopus ID: 85134847508
  Abstract View: 811
  PDF Download: 423

Original Article

Comparison of Vitamin D, Neurofeedback, and Neurofeedback Combined with Vitamin D Supplementation in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Masoud Rahmani 1, Azadeh Mahvelati 2, Amir Hossein Farajinia 3, Shima Shahyad 4, Mojtaba Khaksarian 5, Roghieh Nooripour 6, Saba Hassanvandi 3* ORCID logo

1 School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy
2 Department of Counseling, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran
3 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanistic Sciences, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorram Abad, Iran
4 Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
6 Department of Counseling, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Corresponding Author: Saba Hassanvandi, PhD; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanistic Sciences, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad, Iran. Tel:+98-912-6217358; Email: , Email: hasanvandi2010@yahoo.com


Background: Nowadays, some treatments such as neurofeedback and Vitamin D Supplementation are of great importance in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the efficacy of the combined treatment, the present trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of each one of them with combined neurofeedback and vitamin D supplementation in the reduction of ADHD symptom in children suffering from this disorder.

Methods: In this study from March 2020 to June 2020, we enrolled a total of 120 patients (6-15 years old) who were referred to the Mehr psychiatric hospital (affiliated to Lorestan University of Medical Sciences). Patients were then randomly categorized into three experimental groups and one control group. The first, the second, and the third experimental groups consumed vitamin D pearl, neurofeedback combined with vitamin D, and neurofeedback for 12 weeks, respectively. The control group was given no treatment. Vitamin D serum level was evaluated at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all participants. For data collection, the Parent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) was applied. The obtained information was analyzed using repeated measure variance analysis.

Results: The mean scores were significantly different across the groups. Repeated measure variance analysis showed that the mean score was lower in the combined group in comparison with the other three groups (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Combined treatment could be considered as more effective compared to separate treatments. In addition, in this study, by applying the combined intervention, the duration of treatment decreased significantly.

Cite this article as: Rahmani M, Mahvelati A, Farajinia AH, Shahyad S, Khaksarian M, Nooripour R, et al. Comparison of vitamin d, neurofeedback, and neurofeedback combined with vitamin d supplementation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Iran Med. 2022;25(5):285-393. doi: 10.34172/aim.2022.47
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Submitted: 20 Jan 2021
Revision: 08 May 2021
Accepted: 19 May 2021
ePublished: 01 May 2022
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