Arch Iran Med. 2020;23(10): 672-677.
doi: 10.34172/aim.2020.85

Scopus ID: 85094837608
  Abstract View: 2691
  PDF Download: 974

Original Article

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of HTLV-1 and Co-infections of Blood-Borne Viruses in Birjand, Iran’s Eastern Border

Masoud Yousefi 1 ORCID logo, Gholam Reza Sharifzadeh 1, Azadeh Ebrahimzadeh 1, Zohreh Azarkar 1, Mohammad Hasan Namaei 1, Ghedsiyeh Azarkar 1, Sanaz Ahmadi Ghezeldasht 2,3, Rahim Rezaee 3, Najmeh Valizadeh Zare 4, Arman Mosavat 2, Masood Ziaee 1* ORCID logo

1 Birjand Infectious Disease Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
2 Blood Borne Infections Research Center, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Razavi Khorasan Branch, Mashhad, Iran
3 Immunology Research Center, Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Division, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
4 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
*Corresponding Author: *Corresponding Author: Masood Ziaee, MD; Shahid Ayatollah Ghaffari St., Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, 9717853577, Iran. Tel: +98-91-51613942; Email: , Email: dr.m.ziaee@gmail.com


Background: Blood-borne viruses (BBVs) are one of the most important public health concerns. South Khorasan has a long border with Afghanistan and concern has risen there about blood-borne oncogenic viral infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) and co-infections of BBVs in Birjand, Iran’s eastern border.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 3441 subjects were tested for sero-prevalence of HTLV-1 by ELISA. The data on demographic features, HTLV-1-related risk factors and other characteristics of the population were analyzed by Pearson chi-square and logistic regression tests. Finally, the co-infection of BBVs was evaluated in the study.

Results: The prevalence of HTLV-1 was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.12–0.48). Notably, the sero-prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in our previous studies was reported at 0%, 0.2%, 1.2% and 1.6%, respectively. The results indicated that the occurrence of HTLV-1 infection was associated only with the history of hospitalization (odds ratio [OR]: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.07–0.97, with P = 0.04). The co-infection of HBV with HCV was the most common (2.35%), while a co-infection rate of 1.17% was found for both HBV/HTLV-1 and HBV/HDV.

Conclusion: Although a higher prevalence of the viruses was expected, it was close to the overall Iranian population. With respect to close relationship with an HTLV-1 endemic area (Mashhad and Neyshabour), the prevalence is very low; however, more attention is needed. Our findings reinforce the importance of increasing knowledge about BBV-related health risk behaviors to prevent the emergence of new cases, especially in low-risk populations.

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Submitted: 10 Oct 2019
Revision: 03 May 2020
Accepted: 10 May 2020
ePublished: 01 Oct 2020
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