A case of a 31-year-old woman with sudden respiratory distress is presented. Preliminary evaluations and imaging studies did not reveal the underlying cause. Workup during hospital stay showed advanced metastatic cancer of unknown primary origin. This is an unusual presentation of cancer of an unknown primary involving the thyroid with sudden suffocation. It suggests that malignancies involving the thyroid gland should be considered in patients with abrupt onset of respiratory distress. Also, this case shows the application of fine needle aspiration in diffuse thyroid enlargements mimicking thyroiditis without nodules. Diagnostic approach to cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) is reviewed in further detail.