BACKGROUND: Infectious complications are a major etiology of morbidity and mortality in febrile neutropenic patients. Low serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) concentration may represent a risk factor for infection in leukemia patients receiving chemotherapy. This study evaluates the relationship between serum levels of MASP-2 with neutropenic febrile attacks in children with leukemia.
METHOD: This prospective cohort study conducted between 2009–2010, we measured baseline serum MASP-2 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prior to chemotherapy in leukemia patients less than 14 years of age. The relationship of febrile neutropenia (FN) episodes and duration of hospitalization with MASP-2 concentration was analyzed.
RESULTS: We evaluated 75 children [38 girls (51%), 37 boys (49%); mean age, 61.6 ± 43.7 months]. There were 8 (10.7%) children with MASP-2 deficiency (< 200 ng/mL). Mean MASP-2 was 673.2 ± 288.7 ng/mL (range: 116–1112). Eight patients had no FN episodes. Of the 129 FN episodes recorded, 19 (average 2.4 times) were from the MASP-2deficient group and 110 (average 1.6 times) were in the normal group. There was a significant difference between the mean MASP-2 concentration and FN episodes (P = 0.043).
There was an inverse relationship between FN episodes (r = -0.332, P = 0.004) and the duration of hospitalization (r = -0.334, P = 0.005) with MASP-2 concentration. MASP-2 deficient patients were hospitalized longer than the normal group, which was strongly significant (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed the results of several previous studies. MASP-2 deﬁciency in leukemic children treated with chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of FN episodes, prolonged cumulative duration of hospitalization, and intravenous antimicrobial therapy.