BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported the association between dietary patterns and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other chronic disease. However, there are no studies reporting major dietary patterns in patients awaiting coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The aim of this study was to obtain the major dietary patterns and their association with demographic, dietary factors and biochemical parameters in these patients.
MATHERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 454 patients aged 35 – 80 years as candidates of CABG and hospitalized in the Tehran Heart Center. Anthropometric and demographic characteristics were obtained from all participants and a 138-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to evaluate dietary patterns by factor analysis. Biochemical parameters including HbA1c, serum lipids, hematocrit (HCT), albumin, creatinine and CRP were assessed by commercial laboratory methods.
RESULTS: Five major dietary patterns, including: healthy, intermediate, neo-traditional, western and semi-Mediterranean patterns were extracted. Top quartile of healthy pattern was associated with higher educational attainment and lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and total cholesterol (TC) in men, as well as higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations in women (P < 0.001). Individuals in top quartiles of intermediate and neo-traditional pattern were more likely to be male, had higher smoking and drinking habits, as well as the lower prevalence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension (P < 0.05). They also had higher serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Patients in the western pattern also had a higher prevalence of a family history of cardiovascular disease and higher serum TG concentrations. Top quartiles of semi-Mediterranean pattern were associated with lower C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in women.
CONCLUSIONS: There were five major dietary patterns using FFQ among patients awaiting CABG surgery. Significant associations were observed between major dietary patterns and risk of diabetes and hypertension. Top quartiles of healthy eating patterns were associated with lower cardio-metabolic risk factors.